Coggins and Health Fort Collins, CO

Coggins and Health

What is a Coggins Test?

A coggins test is a blood test checking for Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), a contagious viral disease similar to AIDS in humans. There is no vaccine or cure for EIA. A positive horse must either be quarantined behind screen mesh for the rest of their lives or euthanized. Horses can appear healthy and still be carriers. EIA is spread by insects that bite the infected horse and then bite a horse in close vicinity. This disease is very serious and an outbreak would be catastrophic. This is why it is very important to test travelling and showing horses.

How is the Coggins test performed?

A veterinarian draws a blood sample from your horse and sends it to a state approved laboratory with signed paperwork that notes the horse’s name, sex, age, breed, markings, owner, and current stabled location. Be sure to have this information available. At Waverly Equine Services, coggins form are primarily submitted electronically with photos of your horse but can also be hand written on a traditional coggins form. The lab tests the blood for Equine Infectious Anemia. The results are received in approximately 48 hours, depending on the day of the week and the time it is received by the lab. The negative results are recorded on your Health Certificate papers.

How long is a Coggins good for?

Valid Coggins tests variesfrom state to state and ranges between 6-12 months from date of the test results. In Colorado, a coggins is good for 12 months. Some of our nearby states including Montana and Nevada require negative Coggins results within the last 6 months to enter the state. Call our office for the most up to date requirements for other states.

How long is a Health Certificate good for?

Health certificates are usually valid for 30 days but this can be extremely variable with different shows and in the face of an outbreak. Please check your destination requirements carefully. Horses must pass a physical exam and have obtained a negative Coggins test form in order to have a Health Certificate written.

  • When making appointments for Coggins/Health Certificates, have your horse’s information and your travel destination including the name and address of where you are going so that we can have the proper paperwork ready for you on time. Take the time to call our office for the most updated information well ahead of planning to depart.
  • At any given time, especially in the face of an outbreak, shipping requirements are subject to change. A good resource to check a state’s requirements is UDSA-APHIS-Import/Export. We will do our best keep you up to date when you are planning to travel.

Guidelines:

  • Local: Leaving Larimer or Weld County but staying within the state of Colorado
    • Brand Inspection if traveling more than 75 miles
      *Our office does not offer Brand Inspections. The phone number for the local Brand Inspector’s office is 970-490-1764
    • Coggins and Health Certificates- required by some stables, shows and sales.
  • Nationally: State to State
    • Brand Inspection
    • Current Negative Cogginspapers ranging from 6 months to 12 months within date of travel
    • Current Health Certificatepapers *Some states require permit numbers (Oregon, Montana, Illinois, and Alaska). Call Ahead.
  • Internationally:Time to process, cost and all regulations subject to change at ANY time. Always call our office 2-3 weeks ahead of booking international travel for details and appointment availability so that we can help make all necessary arrangements for you.
    • Mexico: (may take up to 2 weeks to process)
      • Negative Coggins Papers
      • Mexican Health Certificate
      • Negative CEM testing for mares/stallions over 2 years of age
      • Negative for evidence of ectoparasites
      • Implanted Microchip
      • Broker Arrangements at Border Entrance
    • Canada and Alaska: (may take up to 1 week to process)
      • Negative Coggins Papers
      • Canadian Health Certificate

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Deworming Programs

There are big changes in deworming recommendations. Each horse needs to have a deworming program suited to his/her individual needs.

 Sample Adult Horse Deworming Schedule

  • Low Shedders (<200 EPG – eggs per gram of manure)
    • Fecal Egg Count performed prior to deworming in spring
    • Spring (April) – moxidectin(Quest®), ivermectin (Equell ®, Zimectrin ®, Rotectin ®, IverCare ®, etc), or double-dose fenbendazole for 5 days (Panacur®PowerPak)
    • Fall (November) – ivermectin w/ praziquantel (Equimax®, Zimectrin Gold®) or moxidectin with praziquantel (QuestPlus®)
  • Moderate Shedders (200 – 500 EPG)
  • Fecal Egg Count performed prior to deworming in spring and fall to monitor for signs of resistance. May need fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT)
  • Spring (April) – moxidectin(Quest®), ivermectin (Equell ®, Zimectrin ®, Rotectin ®, IverCare ®, etc), or double-dose fenbendazole for 5 days (Panacur®PowerPak)
  • Summer (July) – pyrantel pamoate (Strongid paste ®, TapeCare Plus®, etc), fenbendazole(Panacur, SafeGuard®) or Oxibendazole (Anthelcide®)
  • Early Fall (August/September) – ivermectin (Equell ®, Zimectrin ®, Rotectin ®, IverCare ®, etc)
  • Late Fall/early Winter (Nov/Dec) – ivermectin w/ praziquantel (Equimax®, Zimectrin Gold®) or moxidectin with praziquantel (Quest®)
  • Fecal Egg Count performed prior to deworming in spring
  • Spring (April) –– moxidectin(Quest®), ivermectin (Equell ®, Zimectrin ®, Rotectin ®, IverCare ®, etc), or double-dose fenbendazole for 5 days (Panacur®PowerPak)
  • Late Summer (July) – pyrantel pamoate (Strongid paste®, TapeCare Plus®, etc), fenbendazole (Panacur®, Safe-Guard®)
  • Early Winter (November) – ivermectin w/ praziquantel (Equimax ®, Zimectrin Gold ®) or moxidectin with praziquantel (Quest®)
  • High Shedders (>500 EPG)

 Quest: the toxic level is only 3X normal level and it is easy to overdose. Therefore using a weight tape is recommended and you should not give it to miniature horses or donkeys and to any horse or pony under 1 year in age. Also, do not give to any horse that is sick or has a chronic illness such as Cushing’s disease.

Sample Foal Schedule

  • 2-3 months of age– oxibendazole (Anthelcide EQ®) or fenbendazole (Panacur®, SafeGuard®)
  • 4 -5 months – oxibendazole (Anthelcide EQ®) or fenbendazole (Panacur®, SafeGuard®)
  • 6-7 months – pyrantel pamoate (Strongid®)
  • 8-9 months – ivermectin (Equell®, Zimectrin®, Rotectin®, IverCare®, etc)
  • 12 months – moxidectin with praziquantel (Quest®)

Pregnant Mares

  • Deworm as usual, try to make spring deworming approx 4 weeks prior to foaling.

Daily Deworming- controversial

  • This involves the daily administration of pyrantel pamoate (Strongid C®), as well as ivermectin (Equell®) administered in the spring and ivermectin with praziquantel (Equimax®) administered in the fall. This may be a good protocol for an excessively high shedder or an immune compromised horse. If using daily deworming, horses must be segregated for their daily feeding. Fecal egg counts should still be performed every 6 months to 1 year. Foals can be started after on this program once they reach 2 – 3 months of age.

Important points and recommendations

  • Non-chemical parasite management:
    • Rotate pastures
    • Cross graze pastures with ruminants if possible
    • Remove manure frequently
    • Harrow/drag pastures in hot/dry weather and keep horses out for 2 months
    • Avoid overstocking pastures
  • Deworming schedules (in general):
    • Deworm foals every two to three months, starting at 2 months of age, for the first year of their life
    • Individual horses will often require different deworming programs, even if living in the same or similar environments.
  • Measure the success of parasite control by doing fecal analysis at least once a year
    • Fecal Egg Count (FEC)—an estimate of the parasite eggs in the horse
      • Talk to your veterinarian before doing a fecal analysis to be sure enough time has passed since your horse’s last deworming for eggs to have reappeared in the feces. This Egg Reappearance Period differs depending on the dewormer used.
    • Fecal egg count reduction test—worm egg count should decrease 90% when measured 14 days after deworming.
    1. Eliminate tapeworms from horses once a year with use of a dewormer containing praziquantel. This is done preferrably in the fall due to the life cycle of the tapeworm.
  • Small strongyles (usually a pasture parasite) in their larval stage are resistant to many dewormers. In their encysted form, they are resistant to all but moxidectin (Quest®) or a double dose of fenbendazole for 5 consecutive days (Panacur ® PowerPak). Preferrably treat for the encysted form in early spring or early winter and keep yearlings separated. They tend to shed the most small strongyles
  • Don’t use the same pasture or paddocks year after year for mares and foals. This allows build up of a high level of ascarid eggs which are hardy and can live for years in the environment (even stalls).

Note: Involving your veterinarian in formulating your deworming program is essential to ensure you have an effective program tailored specifically to the needs of your individual horses.

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Equine Wellness Exam Fort Collins, CO

Equine Wellness Exam

What is a wellness exam? Wellness exams are the best way to detect and treat health problems before they become serious. While there’s no way to completely eliminate emergency situations, a good preventive health care program can decrease the chances of life threatening, costly illness. Wellness exams and preventative medicine help horses live longer healthier lives.

The exam includes:

  • Evaluation of body condition and discussion of feeding program and concerns
  • Checking the haircoat and skin along with palpation of head and neck
  • Examination of the eyes and eyelids
  • Examination of the teeth and assessing the need for floating
  • Auscultation of the heart rate, rhythm, and detection of murmurs
  • Listening to the abdomen for normal gut sounds
  • Evaluation of musculoskeletal problems and concerns
  • Parasite control discussion including fecal exam
  • Vaccination consultation and recommendations
  • Foot x-rays may be recommended to ensure hoof balance

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Nutrition Consultation Fort Collins, CO

Nutrition Consultation

A huge part of owning horses is knowing how to feed each one based on its needs. They are all different.

A good place to start is to know your horses’s body condition score.

Download Body Condition Score Form

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Vaccinations Fort Collins, CO

Vaccinations

Every farm/horse is unique and needs a vaccination program tailored to their needs.

Every farm/horse is unique and needs a vaccination program tailored to their needs.

Rabies Information
“Do I need to give my horse a Rabies vaccine?” Consider the facts:

In the past, rabies was found primarily in bats in Colorado. Now, rabies has moved into our terrestrial animals.
This drastically increases the chance of exposure to you, your family, your small animal pets and your horse. The
Colorado State Health Department has reported cases of Rabies in skunks and other small mammals at a rapidly
increasing rate for five consecutive years, since 2008.

Rabies infection in horses as well as humans, results in death in almost 100% of cases. Signs of infection can take
weeks to months after exposure to develop. Death usually occurs in days.

The chance that your horse will get rabies is very low but the consequence if he/she does get rabies is devastating.

We strongly recommend you vaccinate your horses for Rabies. It is a simple way to protect your horse, you and
your family from this deadly disease.

Larimer County Rabies Information
Larimer County 2012 positive rabies map
Rabies found in first Front Range raccoon since 1963
Colorado State University Rabies Information Update

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Equine Dentistry Fort Collins, CO

Equine Dentistry

Dentistry is a very important part of preventative medicine. It allows for adequate feed utilization to help prevent colic, choke, poor body condition, etc. It can also enhance performance or combat training/behavior issues coming from malocclusions which can create painful conditions such as TMJ and periodontal disease.

Equine dentistry has evolved tremendously over the past 10 years and is no longer just “floating” the teeth. In fact, many techniques that were once taught are not being used anymore because they are known to actually damage the teeth or prevent proper occlusion.

Equine dentistry today is more about understanding the complex anatomy of the tooth and utilizing that knowledge to understand what normal is and recognizing abnormal. There is no way to see it if you don’t know to look for it. Dr. Garrison has taken a special interest in dentistry and strives to keep current in the latest techniques.

Education in dentistry, sedation, a speculum, good light, mirror, head support, and motorized equipment are key to a good dental on your horse.

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Lameness Exams Fort Collins, CO

Lameness Exams

Identifying the source of the lameness is essential to proper treatment. A lameness exam may include:

  • Medical history of the horse.
  • Visual evaluation of the horse at rest
  • A thorough, hands-on examination: palpating the horse, checking muscles, joints, bones and tendons for evidence of pain, heat or swelling
  • Hoof tester evaluation: applying pressure to the soles of the feet to check for sensitivity or pain
  • Evaluation of the horse in motion: observing the horse from the front, back and sides, noting any deviations in gait. The horse may be worked on several types of surfaces, as well as on the lunge line or straight runway. The horse may also be ridden, since some lameness may only be apparent when under saddle.
  • Joint flexion tests: the horse’s limbs are flexed and then the horse is trotted off in a straight line. The veterinarian watches for any signs of pain, weight shifting or irregular movements. This reveals problems that are not otherwise readily apparent.
  • Diagnostic nerve and joint blocks- temporarily numbing an area to determine the source of pain
  • Diagnostic imaging- radiography or ultrasound

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Prepurchase Exams Fort Collins, CO

Prepurchase Exams

The purpose of a prepurchase exam is to provide you with information to help insure that you are purchasing a horse that suits your wants and needs. It is a very thorough exam that usually takes a minimum of 1 ½-2 hours. It is important to discuss your goals and requirements in buying a horse with your veterinarian so the exam can be tailored to your needs. The veterinarian’s job is not to pass or fail the horse, but to gather all the pertinent information to help you make and informed decision.

The prepurchase exam may include:

  • Full physical exam including but not limited to:
    • Medical history
    • Temperature
    • Evaluation of heart, lungs, skin, digestive system, etc.
    • Ophthalmic exam
    • Oral exam
  • Performance evaluation
    • Gait analysis
    • Hooftester evaluation
    • Flexion tests
    • Neurologic tests
    • Work on the lunge line/ under saddle
  • Additional diagnostic procedures
    • Radiography, ultrasound
    • Blood work- for genetic diseases, drug testing, Coggins testing or illnesses/infections.
  • Stallions or mares being purchased for breeding often require special tests to determine their reproductive status.
  • Don’t be afraid to ask questions or request more information. Deciding exactly what should be included in the prepurchase examination requires good communication between you and your veterinarian.

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Internal Medicine Fort Collins, CO

Internal Medicine

Medical treatment for your horse is available for conditions such as colic, respiratory illness, rattlesnake bites, liver disease, etc. Digital ultrasound is available to help with diagnosis of medical ailments. IV fluid therapy is also available.

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Emergency Services Fort Collins, CO

Emergency Services

Dr. Garrsion and a group of other very qualified local veterinarians have formed what we call horse-silhouettean emergency cooperative. We have done this so we can provide emergency services 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If Dr. Garrison is unavailable, another veterinarian will be there on backup. The backup veterinarian will contact Dr. Garrison and send records to Waverly Equine Services to go into your horse’s file.

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Reproduction Fort Collins, CO

Reproduction

Services available:

  • Breeding soundness exams
  • Mare management
  • Artificial Insemination
  • Ultrasound Imaging
  • Semen Evaluations
  • Foaling assistance
  • Post-foaling exams and IgG checks

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Surgery Fort Collins, CO

Surgery

Primarily:

  • Castrations
  • Mass removals
  • Wound repairs
  • Tooth extractions

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Radiography / Ultrasound Fort Collins, CO

Radiography / Ultrasound

Digital Radiography
Waverly Equine Services has a top of the line portable digital x-ray system allowing for instant high-quality x-ray images. Digital radiography is one of several valuable diagnostic tools that allow an equine veterinarian to see changes inside your horse. X-rays are commonly used in diagnosing causes of lameness such as navicular disease, OCD, and osteoarthritis. They are also used to diagnose conditions such as tooth abscesses, sinus infections, kissing spine, cervical arthritis and much more. Radiography has been fundamental in equine diagnostic imaging for years and digital radiography takes it to another level.

Digital Ultrasound
A high quality ultrasound is a very valuable imaging tool for evaluating and diagnosing a wide range of conditions primarily but not limited to soft tissue. Musculoskeletal structures such as tendons, ligaments, joints, muscles and bone surfaces may be evaluated for signs of injury or infection. Once an injury is found, ultrasound allows for monitoring healing progress. It can be used for ultrasound guided injections of structures such as the sacroiliac and cervical joints. Ultrasound can aid in diagnosing the cause of colic and other abdominal conditions as well as conditions of the thorax such as pleuropneumonia and lung abscesses. Another very common use of ultrasonography is to monitor reproductive cycles and pregnancy in the broodmare.

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Ophthalmology Fort Collins, CO

Ophthalmology

Eye problems are an emergency!

  • Do not wait to seek veterinary attention if your horse’s eye is tearing, red, swollen, squinting, has a cloudy appearance, or incurred an injury of the eyelid.
  • The eye is a very sensitive and fragile part of your horse’s body. It can be a tremendous source of pain and discomfort when injured or affected by disease.
  • Do not apply any medication to an eye that was not prescribed.
  • Call right away! Waiting can result in vision loss or even loss of the eye

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Farrier Services Fort Collins, CO

Farrier Services

We’ve all heard the saying, “NO FOOT, NO HORSE”. This is so true. The horse has a tremendous amount of stress placed on the hoof and the smallest imbalances can result in big consequences.

The best thing for your horse is for the veterinarian and farrier to work closely together to try to determine how to keep your horse sound by providing the best foundation to help keep the foot and the rest of the body in balance. Often times what we see on the outsideof the hoof doesn’t tell the whole story and xrays can help determine how to better balance the foot.

Dr. Garrison is very willing to working with your farrier so please let them know. If you don’t have a farrier and are in need of one, please see our staff page.

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